Дипломная работа "Synonyms an Their Translation"

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Synonyms an Their Translation
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Kinds of synonyms and their specific features. Distributional features of the English synonyms. Changeability and substitution of meanings. Semantic and functional relationship in synonyms. Interchangeable character of words and their synonymy.

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MINISTRY OF HIGHER AND SECONDARY SPECIAL EDUCATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN

GULISTAN STATE UNIVERSITY

The English and Literature department

Shergoziev Abror's qualification work on speciality 5220100, English philology on theme:

Synonyms and their translation

Supervisor: Tojiev Kh.

Gulistan-2006

Contents

I. Introduction

1.1. Aims and purposes of the work

2.1 General definition of the phenomenon of synonymy in Modern English.

II. The Main Part

2.1 Kinds of synonyms and their specific features

2.2 Distributional features of the English synonyms

2.3 Changeability and substitution of meanings

2.4 Semantic and functional relationship in synonyms

2.5 Interchangeable character of words and their synonymy

2.6 Combinability of synonyms

2.7 Peculiar features of semantics and combinability of the English verbs on the examples of the synonyms “to amuse”, “to entertain”, “to grip”, “to interest”, “to thrill”

2.8 Conceptual synonymy

2.9 Synonymy and collocative meaning

2.10 Semantic peculiarities of synonyms

III. Conclusion

1.3. Summary to the whole work

2.3 Ways of applying the work

IV. Bibliography

INTRODUCTION
1.1. AIMS AND PURPOSES OF THE WORK

The theme of my qualification work sounds as following: “Synonyms and their translation” This qualification work can be characterized by the following:

The actuality of this work caused by several important points. We seem to say that the problem of synonyms is one of the main difficult ones for the English language learners. It can be most clearly seen in the colloquial layer of a language, which, in its turn at high degree is supported by development of modern informational technologies and simplification of alive speech. As a result, a great number of new meanings of one and the same word appear in our vocabulary. So the significance of our work can be proved by the following reasons:

a) The problem of synonymy is one of the developing branches of vocabulary nowadays.

b) Synonymy reflects the general trend of enrichment of a language word-stock.

c) Synonymy is closely connected with the development of modern informational technologies.

d) Being a developing branch of linguistics it requires a special attention of teachers to be adequated to their specialization in English.

Having based upon the actuality of the theme we are able to formulate the general goals of our qualification work.

a) To study, analyze, and sum up all the possible changes happened in the studied branch of linguistics for the past fifty years.

b) To teach the problem of synonymy to young English learners.

c) To demonstrate the significance of the problem for those who want to brush up their English.

d) To mention all the major of linguists' opinions concerning the subject studied.

If we say about the new information used within our work we may note that the work studies the problem from the modern positions and analyzes the modern trends appeared in this subject for the last ten years. In particular, the new computer-based meanings of some habitual words were given.

The practical significance of the work can be concluded in the following items:

a) The work could serve as a good source of learning English by young teachers at schools and colleges.

b) The lexicologists could find a lot of interesting information for themselves.

c) Those who would like to communicate with the English-speaking people through the Internet will be able to use the up-to-date words with the help of our qualification work.

Having said about the linguists studied the material before we can mention that our qualification work was based upon the investigations made by a number of well known English, Russian and Uzbek lexicologists as A.I.Smirnitsky, B.A. Ilyish, N.Buranov, V.V. Vinogradov, O.Jespersen and some others.

If we say about the methods of scientific approaches used in our work we can mention that the method of typological analysis was used.

The newality of the work is concluded in including the modern meanings of habitual words to our qualification work.

The general structure of our qualification work looks as follows:

The work is composed onto three major parts: introduction, main part and conclusion. Each part has its subdivision onto the specific thematically items. There are two points in the introductory part: the first item tells about the general content of the work while the other gives us the general explanation of the lexicological phenomenon of shortening in a language. The main part bears the eight points in itself. The first point explains the shortening of spoken words in particular. The second item analyzes the phenomenon of graphical abbreviations and acronyms. In the third point we study abbreviations as the major way of shortening. In the fourth paragraph of the qualification work we deal with the secondary ways of shortening: sound interchange and sound imitation. The fifth paragraph takes into consideration the question of blendening of words. The sixth item shows us the back formation examples. The last paragraph of the main part analyzes the homonymy influence onto the appearing of shortening. The conclusion of the qualification work sums up the ideas discussed in the main part (the first item) and shows the ways of implying of the qualification work (in the second item).

Word-building processes involve not only qualitative but also quantitative changes. Thus, derivation and compounding represent addition, as affixes and free stems, respectively, are added to the underlying form. Shortening, on the other hand, may be represented as significant subtraction, in which part of the original word is taken away.

The spoken and the written forms of the English language have each their own patterns of shortening, but as there is a constant exchange between both spheres, it is sometimes difficult to tell where a given shortening really originated.

1.1 GENERAL DEFINITION OF THE PHENOMENON OF SYNONYMS IN. MODERN ENGLISH

Synonyms (in ancient Greek syn `ухн' plus and onoma `ьнпмб' name) are different words with similar or identical meanings and are interchangable. Antonyms are words with opposite or nearly opposite meanings. (Synonym and antonym are antonyms.)

An example of synonyms is the words cat and feline. Each describes any member of the family Felidae. Similarly, if we talk about a long time or an extended time, long and extended become synonyms. In the figurative sense, two words are often said to be synonymous if they have the same connotation:

“a widespread impression that … Hollywood was synonymous with immorality” (Doris Kearns Goodwin) Ginzburg R.S. et al. A Course in Modern English Lexicology. M., 1979 pp.72-82

Synonyms can be nouns, adverbs or adjectives, as long as both members of the pair are the same part of speech.

More examples of English synonyms:

baby and infant (noun)

student and pupil (noun)

pretty and attractive (adjective)

sick and ill (adjective)

interesting and fascinating (adjective)

quickly and speedily (adverb)

Note that the synonyms are defined with respect to certain senses of words; for instance, pupil as the “aperture in the iris of the eye” is not synonymous with student. Similarly, expired as “having lost validity” (as in grocery goods) it doesn't necessarily mean death.

Some lexicographers claim that no synonyms have exactly the same meaning (in all contexts or social levels of language) because etymology, orthography, phonic qualities, ambiguous meanings, usage, etc. make them unique. However, many people feel that the synonyms they use are identical in meaning for all practical purposes. Different words that are similar in meaning usually differ for a reason: feline is more formal than cat; long and extended are only synonyms in one usage and not in others, such as a long arm and an extended arm. Synonyms are also a source of euphemisms.

The purpose of a thesaurus is to offer the user a listing of similar or related words; these are often, but not always, synonyms. In a way, hyponyms are similar to synonyms.

In contrast, antonyms (an opposite pair) would be:

dead and alive (compare to synonyms: dead and deceased)

near and far (compare to synonyms: near and close)

war and peace (compare to synonyms: war and armed conflict)

tremendous and awful (comp...