Реферат "Holidays of Russia. (Праздники России)"
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Holidays of Russia
Russian holidays it is the holidays of Russian people connected with widespread national traditions of their carrying out. For a long time already in Russia there was a set of remarkable holidays. People drove round dances, sang songs, and lived not boringly. Every day, what that - a holiday. But gradually traditions and holidays varied. In Russia there are also state holidays. As state eight national holidays, first of all, are called, are recognized non-working, holidays, namely: New Year of the first and on second of January and a Christmas on seventh of January. The international women's day on eighth of March, the Holiday of Spring and work of the first and on second of May, a Victory Day on ninth of May, Independence Day of Russia on twelfth of June, the Day of accord and reconciliation on seventh of November, the Constitution day of the Russian Federation on twelfth of December. For the state holidays, in Russia now, the combination of what remained from the previous historical periods, and new, come to a life finding by the country of the sovereignty and change of a political system is characteristic.
In Russia a great number of Russians, with hunting celebrating Christmas, prefer New Year. Winter holidays are tightened for some weeks: at first we mark the western Christmas, then New Year, then orthodox Christmas, and then old New Year. But nevertheless a favorite holiday in this long train of celebrations - New Year, mark in the night from December, 31st for January, 1st. It is the holiday most ancient and most favorite among Russians.
The main attributes of celebrating of New Year it: a live fur-tree (the truth, in modern Russia the artificial fur-tree - because of availability and possibility of reusable use is preferred), various Christmas-tree decorations, and also obligatory gifts for favorite and close people. The main characters, it is possible to tell, heroes of a holiday are Father Frost and the Snow Maiden - without them cannot manage not only mass celebrating, but also a private congratulation that madly pleases children.
The basic dishes on a celebratory table make salads, hot, fruit (tangerines) and a considerable quantity of spirits (in particular champagne). Any New Year does not do without fireworks, Bengal fires, crackers and salutes.
In comparison with other world, Russia actively celebrates two New Year's holidays. One in the night from December, thirty first for January, first, and the second, "Old New year" on thirteenth of January that surprises foreigners got on New Year's holidays to Russia as at the majority of the countries arrival of New year means much, only change of a calendar cycle and widely it is not marked (celebrated), attaching special significance to Christmas. Now it seems to us that so was always. But the tradition of a meeting of New Year is much younger, than in the countries of Europe. New Year in Ancient Russia, as well as at many other people, began in March and merged with the pagan holiday of a pancake week marking a seeing-off of winter and a meeting of spring. In the tenth century with Christianity acceptance to Russia has come юлианский a calendar on which year began on first of September. But only in the end of the fifteenth century this date began to be marked (celebrated) officially as the beginning of church and civil New Year. And only Peter I, carrying out calendar reform, in 1700 has established (installed) the beginning of New Year since January, 1st. The special decree Peter I demanded solemn and cheerful celebrating of this event. Moscow, therefore all celebrating was capital then passed (took place) on Red Square. However since 1704 of a celebration have been transferred (carried) to northern capital. However, in those days not feast and national гуляния was the main thing. By January, 1st of the house of grandees and commoners were decorated by fur-tree or pine branches which needed to be dressed up not toys, as now, and fruit, vegetables, nuts and even eggs. And all products were not only an ornament, but also symbols: apples were a symbol of fertility, egg a symbol of harmony and full well-being. Since then the meeting of New Year with a green fur-tree, needles, and then with Father Frost and the Snow Maiden became on first of January traditional in our country. Old New Year is the holiday marked (celebrated) according to New Year on юлианскому to a calendar (now in the night from 13 for January, 14th) and being, as a matter of fact, a historical echo of change of chronology. It (He) is known and popular in Russia though it is marked (celebrated) also in Serbia, Switzerland and some other countries. It (He) is marked (celebrated) in a greater degree by those who could not meet New Year on thirty first of December. And also the Russian orthodox Christians who observe from November, twenty till January, sixth the Christmas post and which to meet New year on Julian sky style more conveniently not to break instructions of the Christmas post.
Since 1991 as the state holiday the Christmas marked in Russia on seventh of January has been restored. The announcement of an orthodox religious holiday a day off in such multinational country as Russia has demanded the flexible mechanism of the account of national and religious traditions of all people. Every time when we step over a threshold of New Year, on a shower it becomes especially warm, because in some days there will come the Christmas Holiday! A Christmas - surprising time when heart is filled with miracle expectation... And this miracle occurs! «The Christ is born, glorify! » - Rushes over the Universe, - «the Christ from heavens, meet! » - All world sings of glory of the Creator. Angelic forces and mankind - together glorify what love has no borders. And, probably, therefore a Christmas name «Winter Easter». Each of us tries to spend this day not how any another: to present good and love to the loved one, to become better, and the most important thing - is closer to God. On January, 6th at 12 o'clock in the morning solemn divine service in orthodox temples begins. And on January, 7th it is accepted to congratulate friends and native on this light holiday. Unlike Europeans who aspire to note Christmas in the bosom of the family, and even doors close, in Russia it is accepted to hold doors opened that all who wishes to celebrate Christmas came, to share celebratory pleasure. Christmas Eve is called "Eve" and the word is derived from the ritual of food, skushany this day, cooked red wheat or barley, rye, mixed with honey and juice, almonds and poppy.
The food in Christmas Eve could not be accepted to the first star, in memory of the Bethlehem star, announced to magicians about Christmas of the Savior. And with approach of twilight when there was first star, sat down table and shared gifts, wishing each other all kind and light. Christmas - a holiday when all family together gathers behind the big table. The table prepared the plentiful. Pancakes, fish dishes, jelly, jellied pork and beef feet. Fragrant pigs with breast stuffed with oatmeal, pork head with horseradish, pork sausage at home, roast, honey cakes, pudding and, of course, roasted goose. Christmas-tide begins with Christmas - continuous holidays which last before Kreshchensky Christmas Eve and are accompanied by walks, visiting native and friends, masquerades. In the old days it was customary to tell fortunes. The sparrow flies, by a tail twirls. And you, people, know tables dim.
On the Christmas-tide in Russia it was from time immemorial accepted рядиться, to arrange cheerful games, to go on houses, to awake sleeping, to congratulate all passers on sun turn for the summer, and later, after Christianity acceptance, with Christmas, to joke, sing songs. Came to an end колядки with a general fun, driving from hills, the general feast.
Svjatochnye guessing is various and numerous. Girls, sometimes under the direction of the senior women were engaged in them. Whether and interested them they, first of all, will marry next year or remain in girls will be rich or poor, in general, will be live or will die. Therefore very many guessing связанны with searches of the promised.
After Celebrating of New Year, the Christmas will come to Russia. Remains to very few times to meet a holiday according to Russian traditions, cheerfully and hospitably.
Christening of Gospodne (Sacred Epiphany)
On January, 19th Russians celebrate Kreshchenie Gospodne. In memory that this day Jesus Christ has accepted a christening in the river Jordan, in orthodox temples water which parishioners store then the whole year is consecrated. From temples to cross-shaped ice-holes pass religious processions. Believers plunge into ice-holes, symbolizing it a christening ceremony. Besides, it is considered that bathing for the Christening helps to recover from various illnesses. An Epiphany - one of twelve basic (great) orthodox holidays.
Day of students (Tatiana day)
The good mistress. And the kind soul,
“Tatiana, with a name-day”, -
Let's whisper, hardly breathing.
Live without a bad weather,
Without knowing a hardship,
And let a great happiness
To you the holiday will bring.